The Amazing Olive Leaf
by Jeffrey Dach MD
History of the Olive Tree and Leaf
The Fruit and Leaves of the Olive Tree have been used for thousands
of years. Ancient writings contain abundant references. An early
reference to olive leaf is the appearance of a Dove with the Olive
Branch symbolize the end of the Flood and the beginning of “peace” in
the story of Noah’s Ark. (Bible)(link)
The medicinal use of Olive Leaf began recently in 1995-1996 with the
work of a chemist, William Frederickson who patented his extraction
technique. (37) (Patent )
Upper Left Image: Olive tree and leaves , Olive leaf, Olea Europaea courtesy of wikimedia commons.
Beneficial Properties of Olive Leaf Extract
The Olive Leaf extract contains Oleuropein, the major beneficial substance with antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antihypertensive, and anti-diabetic properties.(9-13)
Nature’s Antibiotic- Antibacterial and Anti Fungal Effects
Morton Walker calls Olive Leaf extract Nature’s Antibiotic because of
anti-bacterial and antifungal properties as demonstrated in a many
studies (2-6). Anti-mycoplasma activity was demonstrated in 2004 (1).
For example, Olive Leaf is a useful agent against chronic sinus
infection as well as chronic toenail fungus. Both may harbor underling
fungal or bacterial organisms causing the infection.
Antiviral Activity against Influenza
Antiviral activity is another benefit. For example, Olive leaf
extract may be useful in cases of chronic Herpes infection, and Herpes
Zoster as well (shingles).(39)
For those wishing to prevent the common cold, the influenza virus,
Olive Leaf extract might prove beneficial because of its anti-viral
effect.(7, 16) Antiviral activity was demonstrated in a 2005 study(7)
Anti-Hypertensive Effects (21-28)
For patients with borderline or mild hypertension, Olive leaf extract
has been shown to reduce blood pressure.(21-28) In one study, Olive
leaf extract was compared with the anti-hypertensive medication
Captopril, finding it reduces blood pressure just as well as Captopril, a
widely used drug.
Anti-Diabetic (29-30) Anti-lipidemic Effects (34)
For patients concerned about cholesterol and lipids, Olive leaf
extract has been found to reduce cholesterol and triglyceride levels,
and more importantly prevent LDL oxidation.(34)
Olive leaf extract was found to be neuroprotective in an animal model of brain injury.(31)
Abundant published medical studies shows an amazing array of health benefits obtained from the humble olive leaf.
For the Online Store: Olive Leaf Extract from Pure Encapsulations
Jeffrey Dach MD
7450 Griffin Road, Suite 190
Davie, Fl 33314
Links and References
2004 Anti-Mycoplasmal Activity
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Dec;48(12):4892-4.
Antimycoplasmal activity of hydroxytyrosol.
Furneri PM, Piperno A, Sajia A, Bisignano G. Department of
Microbiological Sciences and Gynecological Sciences, University of
Catania, Catania, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org
The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antimycoplasmal
activity of hydroxytyrosol. Twenty strains of Mycoplasma hominis, three
strains of Mycoplasma fermentans, and one strain of Mycoplasma
pneumoniae were used. For M. pneumoniae, M. hominis, and M. fermentans,
the MICs were 0.5, 0.03 (for 90% of the strains tested), and 0.25
microg/ml, respectively. The present findings indicate that
hydroxytyrosol might be considered as a promising antimicrobial agent
for treating human infections; its safety (7) and good bioavailability
(10, 19, 20) represent additional advantages for its possible
therapeutic use. Therefore, one might speculate that dietary intake of
the polyphenols contained in olives and olive oil could reduce the risk
of mycoplasmal infection. We believe that mycoplasmas could be an
interesting tool to study and better characterize the interaction of
hydroxytyrosol with bacteriological membrane.
2001 Antibacterial Activity
FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001 Apr 20;198(1):9-13.
In vitro antibacterial activity of some aliphatic aldehydes from Olea
europaea L. Bisignano G, Laganà MG, Trombetta D, Arena S, Nostro A,
Uccella N, Mazzanti G, Saija A. Source Department Farmaco-Biologico,
University of Messina, Contrada Annunziata, 98168 Messina, Italy.
In the present paper we report the ‘in vitro’ activity of eight
aliphatic long-chain aldehydes from olive flavor (hexanal, nonanal,
(E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-eptenal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal,
(E)-2-decenal and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal) against a number of standard and
freshly isolated bacterial strains that may be causal agents of human
intestinal and respiratory tract infections. The saturated aldehydes
characterized in the present study do not exhibit significant
antibacterial activity, while the alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes have a
broad antimicrobial spectrum and show similar activity against
Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. The effectiveness of the
aldehydes under investigation seems to depend not only on the presence
of the alpha,beta-double bond, but also on the chain length from the
enal group and on the microorganism tested.
2003 Antimicrobial activity of olive leaves -antibacterial and antifungal
Mycoses. 2003 Apr;46(3-4):132-6.
In vitro antimicrobial activity of olive leaves.
Markin D, Duek L, Berdicevsky I. Source Department of Microbiology,
Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Institute of Technology, Haifa,
Abstract We investigated the antimicrobial effect of olive leaves
against bacteria and fungi. The microorganisms tested were inoculated in
various concentrations of olive leaf water extract.
Olive leaf 0.6% (w/v) water extract killed almost all bacteria tested, within 3 h.
Dermatophytes were inhibited by 1.25% (w/v) plant extract following a 3-day exposure whereas
Candida albicans was killed following a 24 h incubation in the presence of 15% (w/v) plant extract.
Olive leaf extract fractions, obtained by dialysis, that showed
antimicrobial activity consisted of particles smaller than 1000
molecular rate cutoffs. Scanning electron microscopic observations of C.
albicans, exposed to 40% (w/v) olive leaf extract, showed invaginated
and amorphous cells. Escherichia coli cells, subjected to a similar
treatment but exposed to only 0.6% (w/v) olive leaf extract showed
These findings suggest an antimicrobial potential for olive leaves.
2007 antimicrbial activity- combined antibactyerail and antifungal at low concentrations
Phenolic compounds and antimicrobial activity of olive (Olea europaea
L. Cv. Cobrancosa) leaves. Authors: Pereira, Ana Paula Ferreira,
Isabel C.F.R. Marcelino, F. Valentão, P. Andrade, P.B. Seabra, R.M.
Estevinho, Leticia M. Bento, Albino Pereira, J.A. Issue Date: 2007
Publisher: MDPI International Citation: Molecules. ISSN 1420-3049. 12
(2007) p. 1153-1162. Abstract:
We report the determination of phenolic compounds in olive leaves by
reversed phase HPLC/DAD, and the evaluation of their in vitro activity
against several microorganisms that may be causal agents of human
intestinal and respiratory tract infections, namely Gram positive
(Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), Gram negative
bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella
pneumoniae) and fungi (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans).
Seven phenolic compounds were identified and quantified: caffeic acid,
verbascoside, oleuropein, luteolin 7-O-glucoside, rutin, apigenin
7-O-glucoside and luteolin 4’-O-glucoside.
At low concentrations olive leafs extracts showed an unusual combined
antibacterial and antifungal action, which suggest their great
potential as nutraceuticals, particularly as a source of phenolic
The unusual combined antibacterial and antifungal action obtained in
this study for olive leaf extracts is in agreement with that reported by
Markin et al. . Nevertheless, we obtained lower IC25 values than
the 0.6% described by them. Olive leaves may be useful in cases where
prolonged use of antibiotics encourage development of opportunistic
infections , being especially effective against Klebsiella and
Pseudomonas, two bacterial genera which pose a major resistance problem
Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2009 May;33(5):461-3.
Antimicrobial activity of commercial Olea europaea (olive) leaf extract.
Sudjana AN, D’Orazio C, Ryan V, Rasool N, Ng J, Islam N, Riley TV,
Hammer KA. Discipline of Microbiology and Immunology, School of
Biomedical, Biomolecular and Chemical Sciences, The University of
Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia.
The aim of this research was to investigate the activity of a
commercial extract derived from the leaves of Olea europaea (olive)
against a wide range of microorganisms (n=122). Using agar dilution and
broth microdilution techniques, olive leaf extract was found to be most
active against Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori and
Staphylococcus aureus [including meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)],
with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) as low as 0.31-0.78%
(v/v). In contrast, the extract showed little activity against all other
test organisms (n=79), with MICs for most ranging from 6.25% to 50%
(v/v). In conclusion, olive leaf extract was not broad-spectrum in
action, showing appreciable activity only against H. pylori, C. jejuni,
S. aureus and MRSA. Given this specific activity, olive leaf extract may
have a role in regulating the composition of the gastric flora by
selectively reducing levels of H. pylori and C. jejuni.
2010 antioxidant and antimicrobial
Bioresour Technol. 2010 May;101(10):3751-4.
Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of individual and combined
phenolics in Olea europaea leaf extract. Lee OH, Lee BY. Source
Department of Biomedical Science, CHA University, Seongnam 463-836,
Republic of Korea.
Abstract Olive leaves, an agricultural waste, have great potential as
a natural antioxidant. The current study was made to assess the
antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of both the individual and
combined phenolics in olive leaf extract. A combined phenolics mixture
was prepared by amount ratios of the phenolic compounds in the olive
leaf extract. The results showed that both the individual and combined
phenolics exhibited good radical scavenging abilities, and also revealed
superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity. In terms of antimicrobial
activity, both oleuropein and caffeic acid showed inhibition effects
against microorganisms. Furthermore, the antimicrobial effect of the
combined phenolics was significantly higher than those of the individual
These results show that the combination of olive leaf extract
phenolics possessed antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. This study
indicates that olive leaf extract might be a valuable bioactive source,
and would seem to be applicable in both the health and medical food.
2005 Antiviral activity Olive Leaf extract
Antiviral Res. 2005 Jun;66(2-3):129-36. Epub 2005 Apr 18.
The olive leaf extract exhibits antiviral activity against viral
haemorrhagic septicaemia rhabdovirus (VHSV). Micol V, Caturla N,
Pérez-Fons L, Más V, Pérez L, Estepa A. SourceInstituto de Biología
Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernández, E-03202-Elche,
A commercial plant extract derived from olive tree leaf (Olea
europaea) (LExt) and its major compound, oleuropein (Ole), inhibited the
in vitro infectivity of the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus
(VHSV), a salmonid rhabdovirus. Incubation of virus with LExt or Ole
before infection reduced the viral infectivity to 10 and 30%,
Furthermore, LExt drastically decreased VHSV titers and viral protein
accumulation (virucidal effect) in a dose dependent manner when added
to cell monolayers 36 h post-infection.
On the other hand, both the LExt and Ole were able to inhibit
cell-to-cell membrane fusion induced by VHSV in uninfected cells,
suggesting interactions with viral envelope. Therefore, we propose that
O. europaea could be used as a potential source of promising natural
antivirals, which have demonstrated to lack impact on health and
environment. In addition, Ole could be used to design other related
antiviral agents. 2010
summary of research up to 2010 on Olive leaf component oleuropein-olive leaf extract (mainly oleuropein)
Sci Pharm. 2010;78(2):133-54.
Oleuropein in olive and its pharmacological effects.
Omar SH.Source College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, P.O. Box-31922, Buraidah-51418, Saudi Arabia.
Olive from Olea europaea is native to the Mediterranean region and,
both the oil and the fruit are some of the main components of the
Mediterranean diet. The main active constituents of olive oil include
oleic acid, phenolic constituents, and squalene. The main phenolic
compounds, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, give extra-virgin olive oil
its bitter, pungent taste. The present review focuses on recent works
that have analyzed the relationship between the major phenolic compound
oleuropein and its pharmacological activities including antioxidant,
anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-cancer activities,
antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity, hypolipidemic and
2010 thesis on olive leaf
ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF OLIVE LEAF EXTRACT AND ITS FOOD APPLICATIONS
İzmir Institute of Technology , İzmir, Turkey. by Kerem Kaan AYTUL
Olive leaf is one of the potent source of plant polyphenols having
antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral properties due to its rich
phenolic content. The most abundant phenolic component of this content
is oleuropein which gives the bitter taste to olive and olive oil. In
order to utilize oleuropein and other bioactive components within olive
leaf effectively enough, they should be extracted from olive leaf. In
addition to its antioxidant properties, phenolic compounds within olive
leaf extract have shown antimicrobial activities against several
microorganisms including; E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella
pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhi and Vibrio parahaemolyticu
(Markin et al., 2003).
Furthermore, OLE affects macrophage function and modulates
inflammatory response; those may contribute to activity against
infectious agents (Lee-Huang et al., 2003). Although the individual
phenolic compounds in olive leaf extract may show strong in vitro
activities, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of combined
phenolics showed similar or better effects than the individual phenolics
(Lee at al. 2010). It had also been previously supported by Pereira et
al., (2007) that, extracts may be more beneficial than isolated
constituents since a bioactive component can change its properties in
the presence of other compounds present in the extract. They also
reported the antimicrobial capacity order for several concentrations of
OLE as follows; B. cereus ~C. albicans > E. coli> S. aureus> C.
neoformans~ K. pneumoniae~ P. aeruginosa> B. subtilis. Markin et
al., (2003) also reported that water extract of olive leaf with a
concentration of 0.6% (w/v) killed E.coli, Ps. aeruginosa, S. aureus and
K. pneumonia in 3h exposure. B. subtilis on the other hand was
inhibited only when the concentration was increased to 20% (w/v)
possibly due to spore forming ability of this species. Sudjana et al.,
(2009), studied antibacterial activity of olive leaf extract with large
variety of bacteria. Results indicated that OLE did not present
broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, but had appreciable activity on
H. pylori and C. jejuni
2012 Olive Tree – Bioactive compounds – Review
10) www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3317714/ (full text) www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22489153
Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13(3):3291-340.
Valuable Nutrients and Functional Bioactives in Different Parts of
Olive (Olea europaea L.)-A Review. Ghanbari R, Anwar F, Alkharfy KM,
Gilani AH, Saari N. Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti
Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia;
The Olive tree (Olea europaea L.), a native of the Mediterranean
basin and parts of Asia, is now widely cultivated in many other parts of
the world for production of olive oil and table olives. Olive is a rich
source of valuable nutrients and bioactives of medicinal and
Olive fruit contains appreciable concentration, 1-3% of fresh pulp
weight, of hydrophilic (phenolic acids, phenolic alchohols, flavonoids
and secoiridoids) and lipophilic (cresols) phenolic compounds that are
known to possess multiple biological activities such as antioxidant,
anticarcinogenic, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antihypertensive,
antidyslipidemic, cardiotonic, laxative, and antiplatelet.
olive leaf thorne research (full text)
Alternative Medicine Review Volume 14, Number 1 2009
Olive Leaf Introduction – Olive leaf from Olea europaea, the olive
tree, is native to the Mediterranean and has been known for its
medicinal properties since ancient times.
t is the first botanical noted in the Bible, where it is described in
Ezekiel 47:12, “The fruit thereof shall be for meat, and the leaf
thereof for medicine.” In the last century, extracts of olive leaf have
been studied in both animals and humans and have been found to exhibit
strong antimicrobial properties against viruses, bacteria, yeast, and
parasites. Olive leaf extract also has numerous cardiovascular benefits,
some hypoglycemic activity, and possesses antioxidant activity.
Morton Walker on Olive Leaf Extract Townsend Letter
Olive Leaf Extract as a Main Therapy in the Antimicrobial Supermarket
Marton Walker Townsend Letter May 2001
seagate olive leaf extract Olive Leaf Extract 90 Capsules 450 mg by Seagate – by Seagate Olive Leaf Extract Available on Amazon
Book by Morton Walker on Amazon
13) Olive Leaf Extract
Olive Leaf Extract [Mass Market Paperback] Morton Walker (Author) on
Amazon Olive leaf extract is truly a miraculous natural antibiotic that
cures many diseases. In this book the author lists 137 infectious
diseases that can be conquered by taking olive leaf extract. We know
that olive oil is good for us but most people don’t know that olive leaf
extract is antifungal, antiparasitic, antimicrobial and antiviral. It
does however not destroy friendly gut bacteria although it destroys bad
bacteria, parasites and viruses.
Some of the illnesses discussed in this book include:
Chronic fatigue syndrome, pneumonia, psoriasis, candidiasis, ear
infections, ulcers, heart trouble, heartburn, chronic joint pains,
angina, fibromyalgia, sinus conditions, bladder infection, colds, flu,
hypothyroidism and many viral infections. Anyone with AIDS, cancer or
herpes should also read this book for more information.
In his book, Olive Leaf Extract, Morton Walker states:
“Based on my research, I am convinced that olive leaf extract is
destined to become the most useful, wide-spectrum anti-microbial herbal
ingredient of the twenty-first century!”
East Park Research – Olive Leaf
Antimicrobial Activity of d-Lenolate® east park research olive leaf extract patented extract
Study: Therapeutic Effect of d-Lenolate® Against Experimental
Infections in Immuno-compromised Mice Citation: 2000. Sumiaki Tsuru,
Akihito Nagae, Takuya Ohta, Sakae Ohtake, Machio Ibusuki, Masatosi
Kaneko. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine. 15:127-138.
Review of Enhanced Resistance against Influenza Virus by Treatment
with Dietary Supplement d-Lenolate® in Neutropenic Mice Induced by
Cyclophosphamide. 2001. Sumiaki Tsuru, Machio Ibusuki, Sakae Ohtake,
Yoshimi Umezawa, and Masatoshi Kaneko. Journal of Orthomolecular
free book on olive leaf
Olive Leaf Extract Potent Antibacterial, Antiviral and Antifungal Agent
Researched by Michele Hansen, N.D. Andrew Verity N.D. Dip H. Dip N. Dip
Irid. Copyright 2002 Published in Australia by Goldgolf Pty. Ltd.
few scientific researchers embarked on serious studies into the herb
until the mid 1990’s, since when the most active compounds contained
within the olive leaf have been revealed. This earlier lack of interest
was probably due to the development of potent antibiotics such as
penicillin, which up until this past decade seemed like panaceas for
every microbe under the sun.
Olive leaf extract is Nature’s anti-microbial agent.
In his information booklet ‘Olive Leaf Extract’, Dr. Morton Walker,
DPM and professional medical journalist, lists 126 pathological microbes
which olive leaf extract acts against – many of which are notoriously
antibiotic-resistant. Some of these diseases include Chlamydia, E. Coli,
Giardia, Hepatitis A, B, and C, Influenza, Lyme disease, Meningitis
(both viral and bacterial), Pneumonia, Shingles, Shigella (a form of
dysentery) and Vaginitis. Olive leaf extract appears to be more
efficacious than any other natural antibiotic, both in broad spectrum
capabilities and in potency Direct stimulation of phagocytosis is an
immune system response to microbes of all types. This multifaceted
approach is why Olive Leaf Extract is so efficacious against so many
diseases that involve the immune system. But other diseases also respond
to the extract.
Coronary artery disease seems to respond well to its use.
Laboratory and preliminary clinical studies indicate that extract of
olive leaf alleviates numerous disorders related to insufficient
arterial blood flow, including angina pectoris and intermittent
It helps eliminate atrial fibrillation (arrhythmia), lowers high
blood pressure, and inhibits LDL cholesterol from oxidising. the Major
Discovery In the early 1990s, Fredrickson made a number of significant
discoveries about the oleuropein in olive leaf. These are recorded in
his book ‘The Tree of Life’, which is in the Library of Congress. He
discovered that the human body has two enzymes (esteraise and
beta-glucosidase) that convert oleuropein to elolenic acid, a powerful
compound that kills a wide range of bacteria.
Elolenic acid has one left handed (levorotatory) and seven right
handed (dextorotatory) molecules – the right handed is the mirror image
of the left. It is the right handed form of elolenic acid that kills the
bad bacteria, viruses, fungi, yeasts, etc. As a result of Fredrickson’s
discoveries, this compound is fast becoming a rising star in the world
of nutritional knowledge and healing. Since the process of converting
oleuropein to elolenic acid is a natural process, which occurs in the
body, the process cannot be patented.
Australian olive leaf Book Barlean’s Olive Leaf Complex
Olive leaf extract – nature’s antibiotic by Robin JAsko Energy Times )ct 1999 ———————————
The Miracle of the Olive Leaf by Luana Lei
Since Biblical times we have heard about the olive branch and
reference to the olive tree as the “Tree of Life.” This Bible reference
has more meaning after reading a book by Dr. Morton Walker entitled
Nature’s Antibiotic, Olive Leaf Extract. I was astonished to learn the
amazing and phenomenal situations that this herb treats so effectively
and the amount of research and testing that has been done with it. Dr.
Walker has seventeen pages of medical and alternative references in the
back of the book. He is a medical journalist who has authored over 69
published books and over 1,800 clinical journal and magazine articles
about holistic medicine, orthomolecular nutrition, and alternative
methods of healing. olive leaf tea
Olive Leaf Tea – Mark Hanly MD references
REFERENCES of olive leaf
Aziz, NH, Farag, SE, Mousa, LA, Abo-Zaid, MA.
Comparative antibacterial and antifungal effects of some phenolic compounds. Microbios 1998;93:43-54.
Bisignano, G, Tomaino, A, Lo Cascio, R, Crisafi, G, Uccella, N, Saija, A.
On the in-vitro antimicrobial activity of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol. J Pharm Pharmacol 1999;51:971-4.
Coni, E, Di Benedetto, R, Di Pasquale, M, Masella, R, Modesti, D,
Mattei, R, Carlini, EA. Protective effect of oleuropein, an olive oil
biophenol, on low density lipoprotein oxidizability in rabbits. Lipids
Ficarra, P, Ficarra, R, de Pasquale, A, Monforte, MT, Calabro, ML.
HPLC analysis of oleuropein and some flavonoids in leaf and bud of Olea europaea L. Farmaco 1991;46:803-15.
Saenz, MT, Garcia, MD, Ahumada, MC, Ruiz, V.
Cytostatic activity of some compounds from the unsaponifiable fraction obtained from virgin olive oil.
Farmaco 1998;53:448-9. Tassou, CC, Nychas, GJ, Board, RG.
Effect of phenolic compounds and oleuropein on the germination of
Bacillus cereus T spores. Biotechnol Appl Biochem 1991;13:231-7.
Tranter, HS, Tassou, SC, Nychas, GJ.
The effect of the olive phenolic compound, oleuropein, on growth and enterotoxin B production by Staphylococcus aureus.
J Appl Bacteriol 1993;74:253-9. Visioli, F, Bellomo, G, Galli, C.
Free radical-scavenging properties of olive oil polyphenols. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1998;247:60-4.
HYPERTENSION RX with Olive Leaf extract- reduces BP by 11 mm systolic
Phytotherapy Research Volume 22, Issue 9, pages 1239–1242, September 2008
Food supplementation with an olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract
reduces blood pressure in borderline hypertensive monozygotic twins .
Hypertension is a harmful disease factor that develops unnoticed over
time. The treatment of hypertension is aimed at an early diagnosis
followed by adequate lifestyle changes rather than pharmacological
treatment. The olive leaf extract EFLA®943,
having antihypertensive actions in rats, was tested as a food
supplement in an open study including 40 borderline hypertensive
monozygotic twins. Twins of each pair were assigned to different groups
receiving 500 or 1000 mg/day EFLA®943 for 8 weeks, or advice on a
favourable lifestyle. Body weight, heart rate, blood pressure, glucose
and lipids were measured fortnightly.
Blood pressure changed significantly within pairs, depending on the
dose, with mean systolic differences of ≤6 mmHg (500 mg vs control) and
≤13 mmHg (1000 vs 500 mg), and diastolic differences of ≤5 mmHg.
After 8 weeks, mean blood pressure remained unchanged from baseline
in controls (systolic/diastolic: 133 ± 5/77 ± 6 vs 135 ± 11/80 ± 7 mmHg)
and the low-dose group (136 ± 7/77 ± 7 vs 133 ± 10/76 ± 7), but had
significantly decreased for the high dose group (137 ± 10/80 ± 10 vs 126
± 9/76 ± 6). Cholesterol levels decreased for all treatments with
significant dose-dependent within-pair differences for LDL-cholesterol.
None of the other parameters showed significant changes or consistent
trends. Concluding, the study confirmed the antihypertensive and
cholesterol-lowering action of EFLA®943 in humans.
Phytomedicine. 2011 Feb 15;18(4):251-8. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2010.08.016. Epub 2010 Oct 30.
Olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract effective in patients with stage-1 hypertension: comparison with Captopril.
Susalit E, Agus N, Effendi I, Tjandrawinata RR, Nofiarny D,
Perrinjaquet-Moccetti T, Verbruggen M. Source Nephrology &
Hypertension Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of
Medicine, University of Indonesia/Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National
General Hospital, Jl. Diponegoro 71, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia.
Abstract A double-blind, randomized, parallel and active-controlled
clinical study was conducted to evaluate the anti-hypertensive effect as
well as the tolerability of Olive leaf extract in comparison with
Captopril in patients with stage-1 hypertension.
Additionally, this study also investigated the hypolipidemic effects
of Olive leaf extract in such patients. It consisted of a run-in period
of 4 weeks continued subsequently by an 8-week treatment period. Olive
(Olea europaea L.) leaf extract (EFLA(®)943)
was given orally at the dose of 500 mg twice daily in a flat-dose
manner throughout the 8 weeks. Captopril was given at the dosage regimen
of 12.5 mg twice daily at start. After 2 weeks, if necessary, the dose
of Captopril would be titrated to 25 mg twice daily, based on subject’s
response to treatment. The primary efficacy endpoint was reduction in
systolic blood pressure (SBP) from baseline to week-8 of treatment. The
secondary efficacy endpoints were SBP as well as diastolic blood
pressure (DBP) changes at every time-point evaluation and lipid profile
improvement. Evaluation of BP was performed every week for 8 weeks of
treatment; while of lipid profile at a 4-week interval. Mean SBP at
baseline was 149.3±5.58 mmHg in Olive group and 148.4±5.56 mmHg in
Captopril group; and mean DBPs were 93.9±4.51 and 93.8±4.88 mmHg,
respectively. After 8 weeks of treatment, both groups experienced a
significant reduction of SBP as well as DBP from baseline; while such
reductions were not significantly different between groups. Means of SBP
reduction from baseline to the end of study were -11.5±8.5 and
-13.7±7.6 mmHg in Olive and Captopril groups, respectively; and those of
DBP were -4.8±5.5 and -6.4±5.2 mmHg, respectively. A significant
reduction of triglyceride level was observed in Olive group, but not in
In conclusion, Olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract, at the dosage
regimen of 500 mg twice daily, was similarly effective in lowering
systolic and diastolic blood pressures in subjects with stage-1
hypertension as Captopril, given at its effective dose of 12.5-25 mg
twice daily. excellent article summarizes the above two studies
Life Extension Magazine March 2012
Olive Leaf Safely Modulates Blood Pressure By Michael Downey
Antihypertensive effect of olive leaf extract animal model (mice)
Blood pressure lowering effect of an olive leaf extract (Olea europaea)
in L-NAME induced hypertension in rats. Khayyal MT, el-Ghazaly MA,
Abdallah DM, Nassar NN, Okpanyi SN, Kreuter MH. Department of
Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.
A specially prepared olive leaf extract (EFLA 943)
has been tested for its blood pressure lowering activity in rats
rendered hypertensive by daily oral doses of L-NAME (NG-nitro-L-arginine
methyl ester, 50 mg/kg) for at least 4 weeks.
Oral administration of the extract at different dose levels at the
same time as L-NAME for a period of 8 weeks showed a dose dependent
prophylactic effect against the rise in blood pressure induced by
L-NAME, best effects being induced by a dose of 100 mg/kg of the
extract. In rats previously rendered hypertensive by L-NAME for 6 weeks
and then treated with that dose of the extract for a further 6 weeks
without discontinuation of L-NAME, normalisation of the blood pressure
was observed. The findings confirm previous reports on the hypotensive
effects of olive leaf. The special extract, EFLA 943, was shown to give
consistent results with little individual variability. The
antihypertensive effect of the extract may be related to a variety of
factors involving reversal of vascular changes involved in the L-NAME
J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Feb;84(2-3):299-305.
Antihypertensive, antiatherosclerotic and antioxidant activity of
triterpenoids isolated from Olea europaea, subspecies africana leaves.
Somova LI, Shode FO, Ramnanan P, Nadar A. Department of Human
Physiology, University of Durban-Westville, Private Bag X54001, Durban
4000, South Africa.
For the first time a biossay-directed study of triterpenoids isolated
from the leaves of Olea europaea from Greece, from wild African olive
and from a cultivar of O. europaea grown in Cape Town was reported. The
experiment was undertaken since our preliminary analyses showed that the
African wild olive leave is rich in triterpenoids and contain only
traces of the glycoside oleuropein, which is typical for the European
The isolate of the African wild olive leaves (AO) used in the
experiments was found to contain 0.27% 1:1 mixture of oleanolic acid and
ursolic acid, named oleuafricein. The isolate of Greek olive leaves
(GO) was found to contain 0.71% oleanolic acid, and the Cape Town
cultivar (CT) contained 2.47% oleanolic acid. No ursolic acid was found
in either GO or CT. The antihypertensive, diuretic, antiatherosclerotic,
antioxidant and hypoglycemic effects of authentic oleanolic and ursolic
acid and the three isolates (GO, AO and CT) were studied on Dahl
salt-sensitive (DSS), insulin-resistant rat genetic model of
All three isolates, in a dose 60 mg/kg b.w. for 6 weeks treatment,
prevented the development of severe hypertension and atherosclerosis and
improved the insulin resistance of the experimental animals.
GO, OA and CT isolates could provide an effective and cheap treatment
of this particular, most common type of salt-sensitive hypertension in
the African population.
Rat Model of genetic Hypertension
Phytomedicine. 2003 Mar;10(2-3):115-21.
Cardiovascular, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects of
oleanolic and ursolic acids in experimental hypertension. Somova LO,
Nadar A, Rammanan P, Shode FO. Source Department of Human Physiology,
University of Durban-Westville, Durban, South Africa.
Abstract Cardiovascular (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart
rate), antihyperlipidemic (tryglycerides, total cholesterol and
lipoprotein fractions), antioxidant (glutathione peroxidase–GPx, and
superoxide dismutase–SOD), diuretic/saluretic and hypoglycemic activity
of 98% pure oleanolic (OA) and ursolic (UA) acid were studied in Dahl
salt-sensitive (DSS), insulin resistant rat model of genetic
hypertension. Both OA and UA displayed low toxicity, with LC50 0.10 and
0.95 mg/ml, respectively. Although both triterpenoids did not have
direct hypotensive effect, after 6-week application in a daily dose 60
mg/kg b.w., i.p., they prevented the development of severe hypertension.
The antihypertensive effect was attributed to their potent
diuretic-natriuretic-saluretic activity; direct cardiac effect (heart
rate decrease by 34% and 32%, respectively); antihyperlipidemic (more
than two times decrease of LDL and triglycerides); antioxidant (GPx
increase by 12% and 10%, respectively; SOD increase by 12% and 22%,
respectively), and hypoglycemic (blood glucose decrease by 20% and 50%,
respectively) effects on the DSS rats. Except for the antihyperlipidemic
effects, the other described above in vivo antihypertensive effects of
OA and UA are reported for the first time and the underlying mechanisms
are currently under investigation.
Jonny Bowden olive leaf and hypertension by jonny bowden
Olive Leaf Complex and Hypertension by Dr. Jonny Free e-book
Unleash the Olive Leaf by Jony Bowden – Barleans olive leaf complex ———————————-
Diabetes- Olive Leaf is an Anti-diabetic agent , More effective than DM drug
Phytother Res. 2009 Mar;23(3):347-50.
Antidiabetic effect of Olea europaea L. in normal and diabetic rats.
Eidi A, Eidi M, Darzi R. Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
The antidiabetic effect of an alcohol extract of olive (Olea europaea
L.) leaves was investigated in normal and streptozotocin-induced
diabetic rats. The oral administration of the olive leaves extract (0.1,
0.25 and 0.5 g/kg body wt) for 14 days significantly decreased the
serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, uric acid,
creatinine, aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino
transferase (ALT) while it increased the serum insulin in diabetic rats
but not in normal rats (p < 0.05). A comparison was made between the
action of olive leaves extract and glibenclamide (600 microg/kg), a
known antidiabetic drug.
“The antidiabetic effect of the extract was more effective than that observed with glibenclamide.”
J Med Food. 2012 Jul;15(7):605-10. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2011.0243. Epub 2012 Apr 18.
Olive leaf extract as a hypoglycemic agent in both human diabetic
subjects and in rats. Wainstein J, Ganz T, Boaz M, Bar Dayan Y, Dolev E,
Kerem Z, Madar Z. Diabetes Unit, E. Wolfson Medical Center, Holon,
Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaves have been widely used in
traditional remedies in European and Mediterranean countries as
extracts, herbal teas, and powder. They contain several potentially
bioactive compounds that may have hypoglycemic properties. To examine
the efficacy of 500 mg oral olive leaf extract taken once daily in
tablet form versus matching placebo in improving glucose homeostasis in
adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM).
In this controlled clinical trial, 79 adults with T2DM were
randomized to treatment with 500 mg olive leaf extract tablet taken
orally once daily or matching placebo. The study duration was 14 weeks.
Measures of glucose homeostasis including Hba1c and plasma insulin were
measured and compared by treatment assignment. In a series of animal
models, normal, streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic, and sand rats were used
in the inverted sac model to determine the mechanism through which olive
leaf extract affected starch digestion and absorption.
In the randomized clinical trial, the subjects treated with olive
leaf extract exhibited significantly lower HbA1c and fasting plasma
insulin levels; however, postprandial plasma insulin levels did not
differ significantly by treatment group. In the animal models, normal
and STZ diabetic rats exhibited significantly reduced starch digestion
and absorption after treatment with olive leaf extract compared with
intestine without olive leaf treatment. Reduced digestion and absorption
was observed in both the mucosal and serosal sides of the intestine.
Though reduced, the decline in starch digestion and absorption did not
reach statistical significance in the sand rats. Olive leaf extract is
associated with improved glucose homeostasis in humans. Animal models
indicate that this may be facilitated through the reduction of starch
digestion and absorption.
Olive leaf extract may represent an effective adjunct therapy that normalizes glucose homeostasis in individuals with diabetes.
Neuroprotective – olive leaf
Phytomedicine. 2011 Jan 15;18(2-3):170-5.
The neuroprotective effect of olive leaf extract is related to
improved blood-brain barrier permeability and brain edema in rat with
experimental focal cerebral ischemia. Mohagheghi F, Bigdeli MR,
Rasoulian B, Hashemi P, Pour MR. Source Faculty of Biological Sciences,
Shahid Beheshti University, G.C. Tehran, Iran. Abstract
Recent studies suggest that olive extracts suppress inflammation and
reduce stress oxidative injury. We sought to extend these observations
in an in vivo study of rat cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Four
groups, each of 18 Wister rats, were studied. One (control) group
received distilled water, while three treatment groups received oral
olive leaf extract (50, 75 and 100mg/kg/day respectively). After 30
days, blood lipid profiles were determined, before a 60 min period of
middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). After 24h reperfusion,
neurological deficit scores, infarct volume, brain edema, and
blood-brain barrier permeability were each assessed in subgroups of six
animals drawn from each main group. Olive leaf extract reduced the
LDL/HDL ratio in doses 50, 75, and 100mg/kg/day in comparison to the
control group (P<0.001), and offered cerebroprotection from
ischemia-reperfusion. For controls vs. doses of 50mg/kg/day vs. 75
mg/kg/day vs. 100mg/kg/day, attenuated corrected infarct volumes were
209.79 ± 33.05 mm(3) vs. 164.36 ± 13.44 mm(3) vs. 123.06 ± 28.83 mm(3)
vs. 94.71 ± 33.03 mm(3); brain water content of the infarcted hemisphere
82.33 ± 0.33% vs. 81.33 ± 0.66% vs. 80.75 ± 0.6% vs. 80.16 ± 0.47%, and
blood-brain barrier permeability of the infarcted hemisphere 11.22 ±
2.19 μg/g vs. 9.56 ± 1.74 μg/g vs. 6.99 ± 1.48 μg/g vs. 5.94 ± 1.73 μg/g
tissue (P<0.05 and P<0.01 for measures in doses 75 and
100mg/kg/day vs. controls respectively).
Oral administration of olive leaf extract
Olive leaf protect against genetic and oxidative damage from Permethrin – commonly used insecticide
Cytotechnology. 2012 Aug;64(4):459-64. doi: 10.1007/s10616-011-9424-z. Epub 2012 Jan 20.
Olive leaf extract modulates permethrin induced genetic and oxidative
damage in rats. Turkez H, Togar B, Polat E. Department of Molecular
Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Science, Erzurum Technical University,
Permethrin is a common synthetic chemical, widely used as an
insecticide in agriculture and other domestic applications. The previous
reports indicated that permethrin is a highly toxic synthetic
pyrethroid pesticide to human and environmental health. Therefore, the
present experiment was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of
olive leaf extract in modulating the permethrin induced genotoxic and
oxidative damage in rats. The animals used were broadly divided into
four (A, B, C and D) experimental groups. Group A rats served as control
animals and received distilled water intraperitoneally (n = 5). Groups B
and C rats received intraperitoneal injections of permethrin (60 mg
kg(-1) b.w) and olive leaf extract (500 mg kg(-1) b.w), respectively.
Group D rats received permethrin (60 mg kg(-1) b.w) plus olive leaf
extract (500 mg kg(-1) b.w). Rats were orally administered their
respective feed daily for 21 days. At the end of the experiment rats
were anesthetized and serum and bone marrow cell samples were obtained.
Genotoxic damage was assessed by micronucleus and chromosomal aberration
assays. Total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status were also
measured in serum samples to assess oxidative status. Treatment of Group
B with permethrin resulted in genotoxic damage and increased total
oxidant status levels. Permethrin treatment also significantly decreased
(P < 0.05) total antioxidant capacity level when compared to Group A
rats. Group C rats showed significant increases (P < 0.05) in total
antioxidant capacity level and no alterations in cytogenetic parameters.
Moreover, simultaneous treatments with olive leaf extract significantly
modulated the toxic effects of permethrin in Group D rats. It can be
concluded that olive leaf extract has beneficial influences and could be
able to antagonize permethrin toxicity. As a result, this investigation
clearly revealed the protective role of olive leaf extract against the
genetic and oxidative damage by permethrin in vivo for the first time.
olive leaf protects against gastric ulceration induced by ETOH
J Physiol Biochem. 2012 Dec;68(4):583-92. doi: 10.1007/s13105-012-0177-8. Epub 2012 May 13.
Oleuropein prevents ethanol-induced gastric ulcers via elevation of
antioxidant enzyme activities in rats. Alirezaei M, Dezfoulian O,
Neamati S, Rashidipour M, Tanideh N, Kheradmand A. Source Division of
Biochemistry, School of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, P.O.
Box: 465, Khorram Abad, Iran,
Purified oleuropein from olive leaf extract has been shown to have
antioxidant effects in our recent studies. Thus, the aim of this study
was to assess the antioxidant abilities of oleuropein in comparison with
ranitidine in ethanol-induced gastric damages via evaluation of ulcer
index inhibition, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation
level. Fifty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven
equal groups as follows: control group, ethanol group (absolute ethanol 1
ml/rat), oleuropein group (12 mg/kg), and oleuropein (6, 12, and 18
mg/kg) plus ethanol groups, as well as ranitidine (50 mg/kg) plus
ethanol group. Pretreatment with oleuropein (12 and 18 mg/kg)
significantly increased the ulcer index inhibition (percent), in
comparison with oleuropein (6 mg/kg). Glutathione peroxidase (GPx)
activity was significantly lower in the ethanol group when compared with
the other groups whereas, treatment of rats with oleuropein (12 mg/kg)
significantly increased glutathione content in gastric tissue when
compared with the other groups, and lipid peroxidation was significantly
reduced in the oleuropein- (12 and 18 mg/kg) and ranitidine-treated
animals. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were
both much higher in oleuropein-treated rats than the ethanol group, and
although there was a moderate increase in SOD and CAT activities in
ranitidine-treated rats, the differences were not significant. These
findings suggest that oleuropein has beneficial antioxidant properties
against ethanol-induced gastric damages in the rat. Therefore, it seems
that a combination regimen including both antioxidant and antisecretory
drugs may be beneficial in prevention of ethanol-mediated gastric
Olive Leaf lowers cholesterol , and TRiglycerides
Chem Biol Interact. 2008 Nov 25;176(2-3):88-98.
Hypolipidimic and antioxidant activities of oleuropein and its hydrolysis derivative-rich extracts from Chemlali olive leaves.
Jemai H, Bouaziz M, Fki I, El Feki A, Sayadi S. Laboratoire des
Bioprocédés, Pôle d’excellence régional AUF (PER-LBP), Centre de
biotechnologie de Sfax (CBS), BP 1177, 3038 Sfax, Tunisia.
Oleuropein-rich extracts from olive leaves and their enzymatic and
acid hydrolysates, respectively rich in oleuropein aglycone and
hydroxytyrosol, were prepared under optimal conditions. The antioxidant
activities of these extracts were examined by a series of models in
vitro. In this study the lipid-lowering and the antioxidative activities
of oleuropein, oleuropein aglycone and hydroxytyrosol-rich extracts in
rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet were tested. Wistar rats fed a standard
laboratory diet or cholesterol-rich diets for 16 weeks were used. The
serum lipid levels, the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)
level, as indicator of lipid peroxidation, and the activities of liver
antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)) were
examined. The cholesterol-rich diet induced hyperlipidemia resulting in
the elevation of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and
low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Administration of
polyphenol-rich olive leaf extracts significantly lowered the serum
levels of TC, TG and LDL-C and increased the serum level of high-density
lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Furthermore, the content of TBARS in
liver, heart, kidneys and aorta decreased significantly after oral
administration of polyphenol-rich olive leaf extracts compared with
those of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. In addition, these extracts
increased the serum antioxidant potential and the hepatic CAT and SOD
These results suggested that the hypocholesterolemic effect of
oleuropein, oleuropein aglycone and hydroxytyrosol-rich extracts might
be due to their abilities to lower serum TC, TG and LDL-C levels as well
as slowing the lipid peroxidation process and enhancing antioxidant
Angel with an olive branch. Alternative title(s): Angel with an
Olive Branch, Emblem of Divine Peace. Date between 1475 and 1480
Medium Oil and gold on panel Dimensions Height: 16 cm (6.3 in). Width:
10 cm (3.9 in). Current location (Inventory)Louvre MuseumLink back to
Institution infobox template
The Truth About Olive Leaf Extract
Olive Leaf Extract by Richard L. Hall, 2010
The ORIGINAL OLIVE LEAF EXTRACT®, produced exclusively for AMERIDEN International, Inc., is a call away.
Each vegetarian friendly capsule (vegetable cellulose) contains 500mgs of OLE
(US Patent # 6,117,844) with standardized 20% Oleuropein (HPLC Verified)
And 25mg of Naringin creating a unique delivery system in the body.
for a total of 525mg per capsule.
About the Author:
Richard L. Hall is an agriculturist & herbalist who have been
involved with the process of olive leaf extract coming to market since
its inception in 1989.
His company harvested and provided the olive leaves for William R.
Fredrickson, the original lay-chemist, who discovered and solved the
problem of blood
serum protein binding that The Upjohn Company had in the 70′s. Mr.
Hall’s company also provides “The Original Olive Leaf Extract” under the
“OlivFactor” for Private Labeling” in the United States as well as
internationally. Because of the high cost of labor in the U. S., 99% of
all leaf used
for commercial production of Olive Leaf extract is harvested from
either Spain, Greece, Italy, France, Israel and some in Mexico (one
Original Olive Leaf Extract” uses only leaf processed in Spain, as it
is the highest quality. The trees are not chemically sprayed or
and the leaves can be harvested year round. As CEO of AMERIDEN
International, Mr. Hall and his staff are dedicated to the truth and
Nutraceuticals, which are Bio-Active.
37) Patent by William Frederickson
(US Patent # 6,117,844)
PAtent- olive leaf extract = Method and composition for antiviral therapy William R. Fredrickson
Welcome to the Benolea® website. We are pleased to introduce you to
Benolea® (EFLA®943), our patented olive leaf extract. This
ingredient has a positive influence on the cardiovascular system and supports a healthy heart.
Benolea® (EFLA®943) is the brandname of our olive leaf extract made from the finest leaves of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.).
The olive tree is one of the oldest cultivated plants known and has a
strong symbolic character: it stands for peace and strength.
Olive leaves have traditionally been used in folk medicine for centuries.
The ancient Greeks knew the beneficial effects of the olive leaves
and used them externally to treat wounds and internally to combat high
blood pressure and
diabetes. Also in Yemen, people used to eat and chew olive leaves because of their special healthy benefits.
Based on a profound scientific knowledge Frutarom Switzerland Ltd.
developed Benolea®, a high quality ingredient with the following key
• Standardization on oleuropein and polyphenols content
• Proven stability according to ICH guidelines
• Patented EFLA®HyperPure process technology
• Olive leaf extract with clinical evidence
• Excellent safety profile
Thanks to its heart health promoting properties and its excellent
tolerance, Benolea® is seen as a valuable ingredient with highly
opportunities in the growing market for heart health supporting products.
The Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Olive Leaves against Herpes
Simplex Virus Type 1 M. Motamed Iran J Med Sci 2007; 32(4): 222-226.
Background: It was shown that olive leave extract has antifungal,
antibacterial and antiviral activities. The effects of
OLE on herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) have not been systematically
investigated yet. The aim of this study was to examine
the in vitro effect of olive leaf hydroalcoholic extract
(OLHE) on HSV-1.
Methods: Virucidal effect and viral replication in Vero cell
line were studied in the presence of various concentrations of
OLHE applied at different time intervals using a standard
plaque assay method. The 50% cytotoxic concentration
(CC50), 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50), and therapeutic
index of OLHE were determined.
Results: OLHE showed virucidal effect on HSV-1 in concentrations
>1 mg/mL. The CC50 of OLHE for Vero cells and IC50
were 1.75 and 0.66 mg/mL, respectively. When applied to cell
culture infected with the HSV-1, one hour earlier, OLHE
showed no antiviral activities. When applied to the cells followed
by the virus infection one hour later, or to the media
containing the virus and the combination was added to cell
culture one hour later, OLHE showed anti-HSV-1 activities at
concentrations >1 mg/mL.
Conclusion: OLHE has anti-HSV-1 activity likely due to the
prevention of virus entry into the cells.
Jeffrey Dach MD
7450 Griffin Road, Suite 190
Davie, Fl 33314
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